Transporting agriculture and forestry residue to the anoxic bottom of the Black Sea.
Rewind accelerates a natural solution to remove carbon. Like rivers that carry megatonnes of organic carbon out to sea, Rewind transports agriculture and forestry residue to the anoxic bottom of the Black Sea—the largest anoxic basin in the world, which already serves as a carbon sink big enough to preserve gigatonnes.
Rewind's supply chain is fully measured, monitored, and accounted for by its end-to-end MRV system. With state-of-the-art deep-sea sensors and cameras, along with truck-mounted devices, Rewind provides complete visibility from the field to the bottom of the sea. Using the MRV system, buyers of carbon credits will be able to view the journey of each purchased credit: pictures from collection to deposition, documented travel path, fuel consumption, water and carbon content of the biomass, location of the storage site, and yearly status reports on preservation and safety from the storage site.
Rewind's carbon storage permanence can be reasonably assured for 1,000 years, as the wood already preserved on the bottom of the Black Sea for thousands of years can attest. It is well documented in scientific literature that without oxygen, lignin does not break down.
Moreover, the Black Sea stratification has been stable for over 5,000 years thanks to its geological formation, which prevents anoxic deepwater from mixing with oxic shallow waters. As a result, the majority of the organic carbon stored at the bottom of the Black Sea will remain there for thousands of years, and the little amount that will dissolve in the water will never mix out of the anoxic layer—thus removing CO2 from the atmosphere for geological timescales.
The Black Sea is naturally euxinic below a depth of 150 m, meaning it lacks oxygen and is saturated with sulfide, a toxic chemical. These conditions allow only limited microbial life. Rewind's technology ensures these microbial communities will not be disturbed. The risk of re-emission is extremely low due to the preserving conditions of the euxinia, depth, pressure, cold temperatures, and permanent stratification. With regards to sustainable biomass sourcing, Rewind will ensure collection of clean residual plants that have no other use. To do this, it will work with farmers and forest managers to maintain soil health and adopt best practices for biomass management, with the aim of restoring carbon balance to earth.
Socially speaking, Rewind's solution can transfer income from rich economies and polluting industries to farmers, truck drivers, and sailors in developing economies around the Black Sea. By implementing Rewind's method with an environmental mindset, these countries can become global climate leaders, as well as manage their organic waste in more sustainable ways.
Rewind's solution also provides safe storage for unused agriculture residue (a waste management problem), river runoff (which creates eutrophication in the oxic layer of the Black Sea), and forest ground biomass (which is a fire hazard).